Vaccination - one of the main methods of preventing complex diseases of an epidemic nature. Thanks to such prevention, it became possible to avoid many diseases that threaten human life.
It operates in our country vaccination calendar. It is much like the vaccination calendars that are in effect in most civilized countries. With this document, the intervals between vaccinations are selected so that the immunity of children develops and strengthens as best as possible. Vaccinations can be divided into three categories: obligatory, preventative and voluntary.
There are also several types of vaccines:
First view - live vaccines. These are vaccines for children that contain weakened living microorganisms. These include BCG and vaccination against polio.
Second view - inactivated vaccines. They act on the basis of dead microorganisms. This is vaccination against whooping cough, hepatitis A and polio.
Third view - chemical vaccines. They contain only some of the pathogen. These are vaccinations against meningococcal infection, hemophilic infection, whooping cough.
Fourth view - toxoids. Their action is based on the poison produced by bacteria, which has lost its toxic properties, but is able to cause immunity. Thus, prevention is carried out. tetanus and diphtheria.
Fifth view - associated vaccines. They consist of various types of components. Examples are a vaccine. DTPand MMP II.
Important issue of use combination vaccines. They can reduce the cost of vaccinating the population and increase the coverage of the population with vaccinations. Immunization with such vaccines simultaneously against mumps, measles and rubella held by all children.
Rules for vaccination in children
It is a mistake to assume that all vaccinations are carried out under the same conditions. On the contrary, the development of immunity to each individual disease requires a special approach. Below we give some rules that apply to the most common vaccinations in our country.
1. TB vaccinations spend on different days with other vaccinations. Revaccination against tuberculosis (BCG vaccine) expose children aged 7 to 15 years, whose result Mantoux tests negative.
2. Hepatitis B vaccination administered to all newborns, it can be administered with a vaccine Engerix B.
3. The interval between the first three DTP vaccinations is 30 days, and between the third and next should be at least a year. For the prevention of diseases such as pertussis, tetanus, polio, diphtheria, hepatitis B use combined vaccines that have different combinations of antigens.
4. IPV or inactivated vaccine usually used in the first two vaccinations, but in case of contraindications it can be used for subsequent vaccinations against polio.
5. Prevention against Hib infection carried out both mono - and often combined vaccines. For primary vaccination, combination vaccines are recommended that they have Hib component.
6. Rubella, measles and mumps are vaccinated combination vaccine (CCP) at 12 months. Revaccination is carried out at 6 years. Children who, for whatever reason, have not been vaccinated against mumps, measles and rubella at 12 months and at 6 years of age, are vaccinated before 18 years of age. 15-year-olds who are not vaccinated against rubella or mumps are vaccinated against mumps (for boys) or rubella (for girls). All unvaccinated children over 18 years of age are vaccinated with a single dose up to 30 years.
Vaccines for children
The first vaccine that is given to every newborn in the maternity hospital is the vaccine against hepatitis B. This vaccine is especially important for those children whose mother herself is the carrier antigen. In this case, the child is required to receive the first vaccine no more than 12 hours after birth, and then - at 1, 2 and 12 months. Children whose mothers are not carriers of the virus are vaccinated with the general vaccination schedule: on the first day of life, at 1 month and at 6 months. Such children are usually vaccinated against viral hepatitis B with vaccines against other diseases.
BCG vaccine protects the child from tuberculosis. It is imperative that babies have this kind of protection from birth.
DTP vaccine protects children against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. These diseases are very difficult just in newborns. That's why DTP is carried out already starting from 3 months, and then at 4 months and 5 months, and revaccination is carried out at 18 months.
Today the so-called acellular vaccines. They significantly benefit from whole-cell DTP vaccine. They are less likely to cause negative reactions after vaccination and have a longer-lasting immunity.
Vaccination against polio is carried out by two vaccines - IPV and OPV. Inactivated is more effective because it is administered intramuscularly and this allows for an accurate dosage. It is also safer when the question is about adverse reactions to the vaccine, since the causative agents of the disease in it are already dead and alive in the OPV.
In many countries, children are prevented from hemophilic infection. The most dangerous type of infectious bacterium is Hib. It can cause serious illnesses such as meningitispneumonia, respiratory diseases, osteomyelitisseptic arthritissepsis. Since a child’s unformed body without vaccination cannot adequately resist the disease, deaths often occur. Hib infection is one of the leading causes of death in young children.
Today, a vaccine against hib infection is used in the schedule of preventive vaccinations in most countries of the world. Thanks to its use, one of the most dangerous forms has been practically eliminated - purulent meningitis. Thanks to vaccination, approximately 3 million children's lives are saved each year.
Mumps, measles and rubella are often affected by children, and these diseases can lead to complications such as loss of hearing and vision, encephalitisgenital lesions. Vaccination should be carried out only in rooms specially designated for preventive vaccination, which should have everything for first aid. Before vaccination, the health care provider should carefully check the conformity of the signature on the vaccine packaging for children and the ampoule, as well as their integrity. If the tightness is broken, there is no marking or information on the label, storage conditions or expiration date are violated, such a vaccine preparation is prohibited.
Ampoules with a vaccine can be opened only immediately before its use, the contents are used without delay. Unused vaccine residues are destroyed by boiling or soaking in disinfectant solutions.